UK-Muscle.co.uk Forum banner
1 - 20 of 23 Posts

·
Banned
Joined
·
97 Posts
Discussion Starter · #1 ·




i will soon start again an hGH course of 6-8 months and i have done lots of reading; i found this below very interesting.

Before i caus another controversy :D let me say that if you read and already knew this and is ok for you to use high quantity of HGH cool, anyone has the right to do what wants with his own body..

however if you read and you did not know this info please consider to research more and perhaps use a small quantity of HGH if you want to try it...


GH: The Untold Story


How to lose fat and gain muscle with low doses of growth hormone



by Douglas S. Kalman MS, RD, FACN


Have you ever been promised something that sounded so great you almost wet your pants? Well, then you know a little about how Ponce de Leon felt. He, while on a conquest of the New World (Columbus's second trip to the Americas), was promised a "fountain of youth." After many years of searching, he never did find that fabled fountain. Now, five hundred years later, we're still searching for it, and Ponce looks every bit his age.

The idea of eternal youth resurfaced big time in mainstream America in the late 1980's. Judging by all those plasticized, liposucked, and Botoxed women in South Beach and on Rodeo Drive, I'd say the quest for eternal youth is still going strong. But what if I told you that you could take a simple little injection that would help you slash body fat, restore your skin to its tautness of yesteryear, and perhaps even add years to your life? Wouldn't you also want to dive headfirst into this potential fountain of youth?

A Little Background

As most of you probably guessed, today's fountain of youth (and perhaps what Ponce was looking for) is growth hormone. Human Growth Hormone (hGH or GH), is one of several endocrine hormones. "Endocrine" means that the hormone is produced in one place (in this case, the anterior pituitary), but its action occurs elsewhere (throughout the body). Some of the other endocrine hormones are estrogen, progesterone, Testosterone and DHEA.

GH is also known as somatotropin. It's made up of 191 amino acids (a polypeptide) and its release can be stimulated by growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). In other words, the anterior pituitary will release GH if GHRH is secreted from the hypothalamus. Increase GHRH and you'll increase GH. You'd expect that if you administered exogenous GHRH, the body would respond by overproduction of GH, but sorry, it doesn't. So forget trying to use GHRH in this manner.

The natural overproduction of GH results in acromegaly (think Andre the Giant), while underproduction results in dwarfism (think Hank, the Angry Dwarf).

How are "normal" GH levels determined?

Normally, the body produces about 500 micrograms of GH daily from a total of six to eight pulse secretions. This "normal" number decreases as we age. GH levels decline by about 14% per decade after the age of 30. Obviously, the time period in our lives when our GH levels are at their peaks is during the adolescent years.

Doctors can normally determine if your body is producing enough GH by a few different means. The most utilized test for GH - the gold standard - is the insulin tolerance test (ITT). Other reliable tests include employing arginine infusions (500 mg/kg infused over a 30-minute period), oral L-dopa (500 mg for an adult), clonidine (4 mcg/kg orally), or even sleep or twenty minutes of vigorous exercise. Depending on the test employed, the determination of your GH level can be at the twenty-minute mark or as much as 120 minutes after you started the test.

If you have any of these tests done and your GH is determined to be less than 10 nanograms per deciliter (<10 ng/dl), you're more than likely GH deficient. Currently, the FDA has approved GH for Adult GH Deficiency. Therefore, it's legal and ethical for a physician to prescribe GH therapy. For methods of testing your GH at home, see the article Hormone Testing at Home published a while back in T-mag.

As an aside, several medications are known to increase GH levels. Most of these medications are neuroendocrine (by extension used in psychiatry). These medications include Zolmitriptan, Clonidine, Apomorphine, Baclofen, Bromocriptine, Pergolide mesylate, L-692,429 and L-163,255 (compounds in development by Merck), ghrelin (a developmental drug) and other dopamine and GABA agonists. Please note that the duration of elevated GH from any of these medications isn't yet defined.

Why do athletes use GH?

The short answer is because they can. However, the real question should be, is it beneficial for the athlete to take GH? Besides wanting to look like Arnold, the answer is yes. And in fact, that benefit stretches all the way to those people who are looking to lose weight and cut body fat.

Most high-level bodybuilders use GH in order to gain muscle, which is a mistake. While it's true that GH enhances protein synthesis rates (as does exercise and the ingestion of amino acids), it doesn't directly translate into new muscle growth. Unfortunately, bodybuilders hear about the increased protein synthesis and think that it means an easy path to larger muscles. It's interesting to note that the greatest abundance of GH receptors is along the intestinal tract. So, it's not surprising that most GH-using pro-bodybuilders look pregnant!

Medically, GH is used for people with intestinal disorders such as short bowel syndrome. The incorporation of GH into their therapy aids in absorption of protein and other nutrients in order to sustain life, much different than that bloated guy onstage doing his best not to lay tracks while going through a posing routine.

What about GH as an "Anti-Aging" medicine?

Those who sell GH cite several reasons as to why GH levels decline as we age. For starters, while the body has a hormone that enhances the secretion of GH, it also has a counter-regulatory hormone known as somatostatin. It's thought that as we age (past the age of 40) somatostatin activity increases, thus GH production falls. So some anti-aging docs pharmaceutically look to alter somatostatin activity as a means to bolster GH levels back to those of the younger years.

Another thought is that GHRH (the releasing hormone) becomes less sensitive to signals from the hypothalamus, thus less GHRH is produced and even worse yet, your GH levels fall. Another theory is that the cell receptors for GH throughout the body become less responsive to GH and don't let it bind, so the GH never totally reaches its target tissue.

The proponents of GH therapy as an anti-aging medicine claim that they can help you gain muscle without exercising, improve sexual function, reduce wrinkles, enhance bone density, improve your memory, enhance wound healing time, bolster the immune system and improve heart function. Some people claim that GH can also promote the regrowth of heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and other internal organs that "shrink" with age. I'm not sure whether that would work or not, but the claims exist nonetheless.

Research with GH in the older population has generally yielded positive results. In fact, Dr. Jeffrey Blumberg of Tufts University recently stated, "Aging is a disease! We could save billions of dollars if we could delay the onset of chronic diseases by as little as ten years. There are more anti-aging agents than you can imagine and probably more that science can discover in the next century. But many of these barriers to aging are here now, right in front of our faces in the form of vitamins, minerals, natural enzymes, amino acids and other natural substances. Evidence is piling up, showing how they can fight aging. Prestigious medical journals are full of reports, unimaginable ten years ago, documenting the awesome powers of such natural substances to prevent, halt and reverse the deterioration that comes with advancing years."

In the paper from where this quote was taken, direct reference to the studies on GH replacement were made. These studies demonstrated that GH replacement might, as Cher would sing, "turn back time." Furthermore, according to Steven Grinspoon, M.D. of Harvard Medical School, GH replacement therapy can have a positive effect on body composition and blood lipids (reducing the bad cholesterol, LDL), in addition to enhancing bone density (good for fighting osteoporosis) and cardiac function. These are the real benefits; the ones that aren't usually marketed.

What are the downsides of using GH?

Downsides, besides having the guts of today's professional bodybuilders? There are a few, but it's important to understand that the downsides are usually related to GH abuse or overuse.

The first concern is that overdoing it with GH can cause fluid retention and high blood pressure as well as carpal tunnel syndrome. Minor muscle aches can also occur. The major side effects can be lengthening of bone plates (often visually observed as changes in the jawbone, forehead and feet) and insulin resistance (which can turn into diabetes). It may also turn on cancer "on and off" switches known as oncogenes, which may progress to various forms of cancer.

What are the upsides of using GH?

The positives, like the negatives, are dose related. Think of it this way, the higher the dose you take, the greater the chance you'll experience a negative side effect. However, strong research is accumulating that low dose GH is the way to go for body-fat reduction or reducing the risks of diabetes and heart disease. Eight good clinical trials have been published recently in top tier medical journals indicating the low-dose GH therapy is the way to go for altering body composition.

One study examined seven years of low dose GH replacement. The scientists found that an average daily dose of 1.83 IU (or 0.61 mg/day) per day significantly reduced body fat while actually improving insulin sensitivity! In yet another study of 595 adults, low-dose GH treatment resulted in a 4.38% increase in lean body mass and a body fat reduction of 6.35%. Interestingly enough, it appears that gender makes a difference as men had more favorable results than females.

In all of the "low dose" studies, the only side effect noted was arthralgia (muscle aches) and that occurred in the conventional treatment group (they received the normal GH replacement dose (0.0125 mg/d).

What is a "low-dose"?

Low dose treatment or usage of GH is typically in a range of 0.05 mg to 1.0 mg/day. Most people start high and reduce their GH dose as time marches on.

(Note: To understand the milligram (mg) and International Units (IU's) equivalence thing, the rule of thumb is that one milligram equals three IU.)

Most therapeutic long term treatments geared toward fat loss and enhanced lean-body mass are safely engaged with lower than normal doses. (The goal is maximum long term benefit with little to no downside, thus no need for conventional dosing). Bodybuilders, on the other hand, will take ten or more IU's daily, thus not really reaping the benefits of Ponce de Leon's dream. Remember that all good clinical trials have used lower doses than what bodybuilders tend to use and have yielded great results. If you want life extension and/or a greater quality of life, then listen to the research.

Where do people get GH?

Believe it or not, you can get GH from your physician. Good luck, though. Many doctors don't understand why someone would want to use GH to lose weight or increase their vitality. The sad fact is that many physicians aren't well read in this arena, thus they'll give you a hard time.

However, there are many good physicians and centers that will help you if you wish to have your GH levels tested. It's very easy to get GH if you're found to be GH deficient as an adult.

The GH Wrap Up

• Many people believe that the fountain of youth is human growth hormone. Available brands of GH includes Genotropin, Sazien, Seristim (Serostim), Humatotrope, Norditropin, Nutropin AQ, Nutropin, and Protropin.


The dosages used by pro-bodybuilders are ridiculous.

These high and ultra-high doses can lead to diabetes, acromegaly, bloated guts and possibly cancer.

• Lower doses of GH can reduce body fat and enhance lean body mass.
Typical doses in research are ranging from 0.05 mg to 1.0 mg/day. This equates to 0.15 IU to 3 IU daily.

Douglas Kalman works as a Director for Miami Research Associates, a pharmaceutical and nutraceutical service organization. MRA conducts Phase II through Post Market Surveillance trials. Their website can be found at MiamiResearch.com. Doug can be reached at [email protected].
 

·
Read Only
Joined
·
35,527 Posts
to be honest i have read this before it makes some valid points but is some what outdated and lacks real time experiance with GH for increased muscle mass and fat burning to any level.

in my experiance Muscle increase with GH is dependant on timings of the injection as well as the dose....
 

·
Getting HUGE!
Joined
·
2,072 Posts
Some observations.

I'm confused to see a Fellow of the American College of Nutrition (thats the FACN part after his name) use the term 'the guts of todays professional bodybuilders' and compare an individual with dwarfism to 'Hank the Angry Dwarf'.

State that 'arthralgia' is muscle pain when it is in fact joint pain.

GH is not accepted to turn on oncogenes (genetic mutations that cause cancer).

Can I ask if this is the 'medical MD' you've been checking your information with over on the fina thread? I should let everyone know that this guy lacks any credibility and this is clearly shown in the fact that he is trying to write about 'fashionable' themes with little backing to his writing (think of those pop ups you get from certain websites advertising "Get Dr. Chico's monthly newsletter free!!".) His research is published in largely ignored journals.

My point is that easy reading watered down pseudoresearch like this should be taken with a pinch of salt. We have far superior research being carried out here in Newcastle.

Just thought you'd all like to know ;-)
 

·
Getting HUGE!
Joined
·
2,072 Posts
Pscarb said:
to be honest i have read this before it makes some valid points but is some what outdated and lacks real time experiance with GH for increased muscle mass and fat burning to any level.

in my experiance Muscle increase with GH is dependant on timings of the injection as well as the dose....
On a similar note- I should add, that there are guys on here very experienced in GH use for bodybuilding purposes who even I, as medical scientist would advise readers talk to rather than trust a generic article like this one.

My point is that people on here benefit from real discussion from those more experienced than them. You (original poster) seem focused on educating people. Your intentions might be good mate but things like that can be googled in seconds.
 

·
Banned
Joined
·
97 Posts
Discussion Starter · #5 ·
Pscarb said:
to be honest i have read this before it makes some valid points but is some what outdated and lacks real time experiance with GH for increased muscle mass and fat burning to any level.

in my experiance Muscle increase with GH is dependant on timings of the injection as well as the dose....
correct is not recent...but i was more interesting in the use of HGH as antiageing agent so the low dose logic (less side effects and more benefits in the long run) suit me + i have my mother and my grandfather diabetic and the idea of cancer freak me out

we need also to recognise that the dose used in any studies are very lose dose and these are the doses wuth less sides...
 

·
Banned
Joined
·
97 Posts
Discussion Starter · #6 ·
pauly7582 said:
On a similar note- I should add, that there are guys on here very experienced in GH use for bodybuilding purposes who even I, as medical scientist would advise readers talk to rather than trust a generic article like this one.

My point is that people on here benefit from real discussion from those more experienced than them. You (original poster) seem focused on educating people. Your intentions might be good mate but things like that can be googled in seconds.
Pauly; i agree that you can googled but still many people who do not have crucial reasons to overuse gear (competing-money etc. still,is it valid

reason to jeopardise your health?) use much more gear and hgh for very long time than the past....

there is a recent research about hgh and cancer

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Mar;6(3):360-3. Epub 2008 Feb 6

Anti-aging therapy with human growth hormone associated with metastatic colon cancer in a patient with Crohn's colitis.

Melmed GY, Devlin SM, Vlotides G, Dhall D, Ross S, Yu R, Melmed S.

Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. [email protected]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The nonapproved use of human growth hormone (HGH) for anti-aging has been increasing. Theoretical concerns for neoplastic potentiation by HGH have been raised, but not proven clinically. METHODS: We report the case of a 68-year-old man with colonic Crohn's disease who was found to have aggressive metastatic colon cancer. The patient had been receiving HGH therapy for anti-aging purposes for 7 years before presentation. Normal and malignant colonic tissue was examined for qualitative and quantitative molecular profiles of growth hormone (GH) and its signaling molecules, using immunohistochemistry and RNA extraction with polymerase chain reaction amplification. RESULTS: Immunoreactivity was more robust in tumor tissue than in normal colon for insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) but not for IGF, GH, or GH receptor. RNA extraction with quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that IGF-1R and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, but not IGF-1, GH receptor, or suppressor of cytokine signaling-2, were higher in tumor than in normal colonic tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal cancer development concurrent with administration of HGH for anti-aging purposes occurred in an individual already at increased risk for colon cancer. This underscores the need for further investigation of the proneoplastic potential of GH supplementation for anti-aging.

i do not have the ambition to educate anyone but i was doing research for me and i thought it was good to underline the dark side of HGH and a way to benefit without compromise health..

Nope this is not the doctor of the hair; the doctor of the hair is Dr. Richard Lee (the first in the world to introduce the use of minoxidil)

that together with Proctor, klein and Bernstein are the best in the US and i would say in the wolrdthis type of problem..
 

·
Read Only
Joined
·
35,527 Posts
well you jeopardise your health every time you drink alcohol and smoke, if you respect your health then when you use steroids or/and GH you get your bloods and heart checked once or twice a year, for me anyone who uses steroids or GH etc without medical control needs to get their health checked if they don't then they stupid......

the study merely points out that a 67yr old man with an increased risk to colon cancer should be careful when using GH for anti-aging....maybe Paul can read more from this but should a conclusion like this be made from just one patient?
 

·
Banned
Joined
·
97 Posts
Discussion Starter · #8 ·
Pscarb said:
well you jeopardise your health every time you drink alcohol and smoke, if you respect your health then when you use steroids or/and GH you get your bloods and heart checked once or twice a year, for me anyone who uses steroids or GH etc without medical control needs to get their health checked if they don't then they stupid......

the study merely points out that a 67yr old man with an increased risk to colon cancer should be careful when using GH for anti-aging....maybe Paul can read more from this but should a conclusion like this be made from just one patient?
you can get your bloods and heart checked how much you want but when you fin out you have a cancer or diabetes the damage is done, check up does not prevent anything give you a picture of your body health at the time without telling you , you will develop for instance leukemia or cancer later...

by the way you spot cancer in devlopment not with a simple blood analysis....

i just mentioned the most recent one (2008) there is also a review of all the major studies done on hgh published by Jama(ask pauly what is it) and the review was negative.......

i am not against HGH (i just said i will use it soon) but i will use at the dose used in the published studies and not at bodybuilding dose (that is crazy!!).
 

·
Read Only
Joined
·
35,527 Posts
yes you are correct having bloods and heart checks does not stop the problem but what it does do is highlight any early signs and yes you do get signs of both cancer and diabetes's....so saying what is the point is stupid mate as cancer and diabetes's are not the only health problems you can get from taking drugs without medical supervision, i am a little confused that you speak of the dangers of GH and cancer yet you don't get bloods done when you use steroids why is that?
 

·
Banned
Joined
·
97 Posts
Discussion Starter · #10 ·
paul why are you confused? never said i do not do check up; actually being 38 i usually have a check up every 6-8 months and i also mentioned this when i said i use finsteride under dermatologist supervision, i usually get a scanner for the prostrate and specific bllod work for this...so yes i agree with you and i stress with you the importance of having a complete check up done every year...but sadly for the most serious sides of HGH check up are not the solution; prevention is the key concept hence the reason why i use low dose of HGH and anabolics

in medicine there is a good tenet use any type of drug at a minimum quantity that elicits the effect and frankly 10 iu of hgh or the monstorus dose of anabolic that i read in forums are ridicolous...

even if is a clique bodybuilders of the past they had great physiques with much less gear...
 

·
Read Only
Joined
·
35,527 Posts
well a low dose to one is a high dose to another really so the only real safe way is not to use at all...

10iu's may be the lowest amount someone can use to elicit the effect but then this is down to the effect needed, if you are talking about anti-aging then 1iu's ed may be the dose to use but if you are talking about muscle mass then 1iu's would probably not cut it for most....

can i ask then if the thought of cancer freaks you out why use any steroid or GH product isn't the minimum quantity in your case none at all?

the reason i said i was confused is that i have asked in a previous post and you did not answer the question....

it is true BB's use more of everything nowadays mainly because it is all cheaper and more available...as for the bodybuilders in the past have a great physiques with less gear...less gear for who? yes less gear compared to some today but then back then they may of been huge amounts compared to previous bodybuilders....all sports progress athletes get faster and bigger etc etc...Bodybuilding is no different....
 

·
Banned
Joined
·
97 Posts
Pscarb said:
can i ask then if the thought of cancer freaks you out why use any steroid or GH product isn't the minimum quantity in your case none at all?
did you speak to my mother? :) she says exaclty what you are saying....

i guess because i like the effects they have on me especially when i spar or fight....

i believe that if steroids (the safest ones; and deca is one of these.. ) are used in 'reasonable' amount (as a kick in for your work in the gym; providing you have a good nutrition plan and rest) not for long cycles and with long break between cycles (two or max three cycles a year) the possibility of having problems are remote (but still exist).

About the gh, yes i agree this is my maximum dose, 1 iu (same doses of the published studies)for a considerable lenght of time and only for antiageing (is also cheap by the way). However having a family history of diabetes i check every day the blood glucose
 

·
Getting HUGE!
Joined
·
2,072 Posts
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Mar;6(3):360-3. Epub 2008 Feb 6

Anti-aging therapy with human growth hormone associated with metastatic colon cancer in a patient with Crohn's colitis.

Melmed GY, Devlin SM, Vlotides G, Dhall D, Ross S, Yu R, Melmed S.

Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. [email protected]

The study demonstrates ONE patient with Crohn's Disease (people with Crohn's disease are much higher risk of colon cancer) developed cancer. The majority of colon cancers are responsive to growth factors as are cancers of most other tissues. The study tried o claim that the GH administration caused the development of growth factor positive cancer in this SINGLE isolated case.

This study is a complete waste because:

Should use a large sample of subjects

Doesnt acknowledge the frequency of growth factor responsive cancers

Is published in a below average journal

I'm not going out of my way to pick fault. Just dont use cr ap research to prove a point that hasent been proven.
 

·
Banned
Joined
·
97 Posts
Discussion Starter · #15 ·
pauly7582 said:
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Mar;6(3):360-3. Epub 2008 Feb 6

Anti-aging therapy with human growth hormone associated with metastatic colon cancer in a patient with Crohn's colitis.

Melmed GY, Devlin SM, Vlotides G, Dhall D, Ross S, Yu R, Melmed S.

Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. [email protected]

The study demonstrates ONE patient with Crohn's Disease (people with Crohn's disease are much higher risk of colon cancer) developed cancer. The majority of colon cancers are responsive to growth factors as are cancers of most other tissues. The study tried o claim that the GH administration caused the development of growth factor positive cancer in this SINGLE isolated case.

This study is a complete waste because:

Should use a large sample of subjects

Doesnt acknowledge the frequency of growth factor responsive cancers

Is published in a below average journal

I'm not going out of my way to pick fault. Just dont use cr ap research to prove a point that hasent been proven.
this is the second time that u completely destroyed a peer reviewed study; i have so many choices to document a 'supposed' (in research we are never sure by definition) link HGH and cancer..

i mention this and i know you know (haha, sorry for the sentence) why i did it

: Ann Intern Med. 2008 Oct 7;149(7):461-71, W83-8.http:--highwire.stanford.edu-icons-externalservices-pubmed-custom-annintmed_final.gif Links

Insulin-like growth factors, their binding proteins, and prostate cancer risk: analysis of individual patient data from 12 prospective studies.

Roddam AW, Allen NE, Appleby P, Key TJ, Ferrucci L, Carter HB, Metter EJ, Chen C, Weiss NS, Fitzpatrick A, Hsing AW, Lacey JV Jr, Helzlsouer K, Rinaldi S, Riboli E, Kaaks R, Janssen JA, Wildhagen MF, Schröder FH, Platz EA, Pollak M, Giovannucci E, Schaefer C, Quesenberry CP Jr, Vogelman JH, Severi G, English DR, Giles GG, Stattin P, Hallmans G, Johansson M, Chan JM, Gann P, Oliver SE, Holly JM, Donovan J, Meyer F, Bairati I, Galan P.

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, United Kingdom. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: Some, but not all, published results have shown an association between circulating blood levels of some insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) and the subsequent risk for prostate cancer. PURPOSE: To assess the association between levels of IGFs and IGFBPs and the subsequent risk for prostate cancer. DATA SOURCES: Studies identified in PubMed, Web of Science, and CancerLit. STUDY SELECTION: The principal investigators of all studies that published data on circulating concentrations of sex steroids, IGFs, or IGFBPs and prostate cancer risk using prospectively collected blood samples were invited to collaborate. DATA EXTRACTION: Investigators provided individual participant data on circulating concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-II, and IGFBP-III and participant characteristics to a central data set in Oxford, United Kingdom. DATA SYNTHESIS: The study included data on 3700 men with prostate cancer and 5200 control participants. On average, case patients were 61.5 years of age at blood collection and received a diagnosis of prostate cancer 5 years after blood collection. The greater the serum IGF-I concentration, the greater the subsequent risk for prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] in the highest vs. lowest quintile, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.19 to 1.60]; P < 0.001 for trend). Neither IGF-II nor IGFBP-II concentrations were associated with prostate cancer risk, but statistical power was limited. Insulin-like growth factor I and IGFBP-III were correlated (r = 0.58), and although IGFBP-III concentration seemed to be associated with prostate cancer risk, this was secondary to its association with IGF-I levels. Insulin-like growth factor I concentrations seemed to be more positively associated with low-grade than high-grade disease; otherwise, the association between IGFs and IGFBPs and prostate cancer risk had no statistically significant heterogeneity related to stage or grade of disease, time between blood collection and diagnosis, age and year of diagnosis, prostate-specific antigen level at recruitment, body mass index, smoking, or alcohol intake. LIMITATIONS: Insulin-like growth factor concentrations were measured in only 1 sample for each participant, and the laboratory methods to measure IGFs differed in each study. Not all patients had disease stage or grade information, and the diagnosis of prostate cancer may differ among the studies. CONCLUSION: High circulating IGF-I concentrations are associated with a moderately increased risk for prostate cancer.
 

·
Banned
Joined
·
97 Posts
Discussion Starter · #16 ·
pauly7582 said:
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Mar;6(3):360-3. Epub 2008 Feb 6

Anti-aging therapy with human growth hormone associated with metastatic colon cancer in a patient with Crohn's colitis.

Melmed GY, Devlin SM, Vlotides G, Dhall D, Ross S, Yu R, Melmed S.

Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. [email protected]

The study demonstrates ONE patient with Crohn's Disease (people with Crohn's disease are much higher risk of colon cancer) developed cancer. The majority of colon cancers are responsive to growth factors as are cancers of most other tissues. The study tried o claim that the GH administration caused the development of growth factor positive cancer in this SINGLE isolated case.

This study is a complete waste because:

Should use a large sample of subjects

Doesnt acknowledge the frequency of growth factor responsive cancers

Is published in a below average journal

I'm not going out of my way to pick fault. Just dont use cr ap research to prove a point that hasent been proven.
pauly7582 said:
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Mar;6(3):360-3. Epub 2008 Feb 6

Anti-aging therapy with human growth hormone associated with metastatic colon cancer in a patient with Crohn's colitis.

Melmed GY, Devlin SM, Vlotides G, Dhall D, Ross S, Yu R, Melmed S.

Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. [email protected]

The study demonstrates ONE patient with Crohn's Disease (people with Crohn's disease are much higher risk of colon cancer) developed cancer. The majority of colon cancers are responsive to growth factors as are cancers of most other tissues. The study tried o claim that the GH administration caused the development of growth factor positive cancer in this SINGLE isolated case.

This study is a complete waste because:

Should use a large sample of subjects

Doesnt acknowledge the frequency of growth factor responsive cancers

Is published in a below average journal

I'm not going out of my way to pick fault. Just dont use cr ap research to prove a point that hasent been proven.
this is the second time that u completely destroyed a peer reviewed study; i have so many choices to document a 'supposed' (in research we are never sure by definition) link HGH and cancer..

i mention this and i know you know (haha, sorry for the sentence) why i did it

: Ann Intern Med. 2008 Oct 7;149(7):461-71, W83-8.http:--highwire.stanford.edu-icons-externalservices-pubmed-custom-annintmed_final.gif Links

Insulin-like growth factors, their binding proteins, and prostate cancer risk: analysis of individual patient data from 12 prospective studies.

Roddam AW, Allen NE, Appleby P, Key TJ, Ferrucci L, Carter HB, Metter EJ, Chen C, Weiss NS, Fitzpatrick A, Hsing AW, Lacey JV Jr, Helzlsouer K, Rinaldi S, Riboli E, Kaaks R, Janssen JA, Wildhagen MF, Schröder FH, Platz EA, Pollak M, Giovannucci E, Schaefer C, Quesenberry CP Jr, Vogelman JH, Severi G, English DR, Giles GG, Stattin P, Hallmans G, Johansson M, Chan JM, Gann P, Oliver SE, Holly JM, Donovan J, Meyer F, Bairati I, Galan P.

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, United Kingdom. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: Some, but not all, published results have shown an association between circulating blood levels of some insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) and the subsequent risk for prostate cancer. PURPOSE: To assess the association between levels of IGFs and IGFBPs and the subsequent risk for prostate cancer. DATA SOURCES: Studies identified in PubMed, Web of Science, and CancerLit. STUDY SELECTION: The principal investigators of all studies that published data on circulating concentrations of sex steroids, IGFs, or IGFBPs and prostate cancer risk using prospectively collected blood samples were invited to collaborate. DATA EXTRACTION: Investigators provided individual participant data on circulating concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-II, and IGFBP-III and participant characteristics to a central data set in Oxford, United Kingdom. DATA SYNTHESIS: The study included data on 3700 men with prostate cancer and 5200 control participants. On average, case patients were 61.5 years of age at blood collection and received a diagnosis of prostate cancer 5 years after blood collection. The greater the serum IGF-I concentration, the greater the subsequent risk for prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] in the highest vs. lowest quintile, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.19 to 1.60]; P < 0.001 for trend). Neither IGF-II nor IGFBP-II concentrations were associated with prostate cancer risk, but statistical power was limited. Insulin-like growth factor I and IGFBP-III were correlated (r = 0.58), and although IGFBP-III concentration seemed to be associated with prostate cancer risk, this was secondary to its association with IGF-I levels. Insulin-like growth factor I concentrations seemed to be more positively associated with low-grade than high-grade disease; otherwise, the association between IGFs and IGFBPs and prostate cancer risk had no statistically significant heterogeneity related to stage or grade of disease, time between blood collection and diagnosis, age and year of diagnosis, prostate-specific antigen level at recruitment, body mass index, smoking, or alcohol intake. LIMITATIONS: Insulin-like growth factor concentrations were measured in only 1 sample for each participant, and the laboratory methods to measure IGFs differed in each study. Not all patients had disease stage or grade information, and the diagnosis of prostate cancer may differ among the studies. CONCLUSION: High circulating IGF-I concentrations are associated with a moderately increased risk for prostate cancer.
 

·
Read Only
Joined
·
35,527 Posts
Magick can you show me a study that has been completed on subjects in their 20's-40's that do not have a history of cancer that clearly shows a link between GH/IGF-1 and cancer as this is more relevant for this board........

why not post up the data showing the link between eating red meat and bowel cancer as this is a more proven theory and is relevant to bodybuilders than a study done on a 61yr old man.

you could even go as far as the link between sunbeds and skin cancer again more relevant to the audience reading this thread......don't you think
 

·
Banned
Joined
·
97 Posts
Discussion Starter · #19 ·
Pscarb said:
why not post up the data showing the link between eating red meat and bowel cancer as this is a more proven theory

you could even go as far as the link between sunbeds and skin cancer again more relevant to the audience reading this thread......don't you think
what i need to show studies on such issues?? why still people do not know about it? :D

not sure why you ask links of studies; if you do a search on igf or gh and cancer you will find quite a few

i am lazy i upload the first found

Study Protocol: insulin and its role in cancer<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:eek:ffice:eek:ffice" /><o:p></o:p>

K Harish1 <?xml:namespace prefix = v ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" /><v:shapetype id=_x0000_t75 stroked=f" filled="f" path="[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@5xe" o:preferrelative="t" o:spt="75" coordsize="21600,21600"><v:stroke joinstyle="miter"></v:stroke><v:formulas><v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"></v:f><v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"></v:f><v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"></v:f><v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"></v:f><v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"></v:f><v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"></v:f><v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"></v:f></v:formulas><v:path o:connecttype="rect" gradientshapeok="t" o:extrusionok="f"></v:path><o:lock aspectratio="t" v:ext="edit"></o:lock></v:shapetype><v:shape id=_x0000_i1029 style="VISIBILITY: visible; WIDTH: 10.5pt; HEIGHT: 8.25pt" alt="email" type="#_x0000_t75"><v:imagedata o:href="http://www.biomedcentral.com/graphics/article/email-ca.gif" src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\Alberto\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image001.gif"></v:imagedata></v:shape>, M Dharmalingam2 <v:shape id=_x0000_i1028 style=VISIBILITY: visible; WIDTH: 10.5pt; HEIGHT: 8.25pt" alt="email" type="#_x0000_t75"><v:imagedata o:href="http://www.biomedcentral.com/graphics/article/email.gif" src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\Alberto\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image002.gif"></v:imagedata></v:shape>and M Himanshu2 <v:shape id=_x0000_i1027 style="VISIBILITY: visible; WIDTH: 10.5pt; HEIGHT: 8.25pt" alt="email" type="#_x0000_t75"><v:imagedata o:href="http://www.biomedcentral.com/graphics/article/email.gif" src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\Alberto\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image002.gif"></v:imagedata></v:shape>

1Department of Surgical Oncology, M. S. Ramaiah Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore 560054, India<o:p></o:p>

2Department of Endocrinology, M. S. Ramaiah Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore 560054, India<o:p></o:p>

<v:shape id=_x0000_i1026 style="VISIBILITY: visible; WIDTH: 10.5pt; HEIGHT: 8.25pt" alt="
email.gif
" type="#_x0000_t75"><v:imagedata o:href="
email.gif
" src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\Alberto\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image002.gif"></v:imagedata></v:shape>author email<v:shape id=_x0000_i1025 style="VISIBILITY: visible; WIDTH: 10.5pt; HEIGHT: 8.25pt" alt="
email-ca.gif
" type="#_x0000_t75"> <v:imagedata o:href="
email-ca.gif
" src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\Alberto\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image001.gif"></v:imagedata></v:shape>corresponding author email<o:p></o:p>

BMC Endocrine Disorders 2007, 7:10doi:10.1186/1472-6823-7-10<o:p></o:p>

Abstract<o:p></o:p>

Background<o:p></o:p>

Studies have shown that metabolic syndrome and its consequent biochemical derangements in the various phases of diabetes may contribute to carcinogenesis. A part of this carcinogenic effect could be attributed to hyperinsulinism. High levels of insulin decrease the production of IGF-1 binding proteins and hence increase levels of free IGF-1. It is well established that bioactivity of free insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) increases tumor turnover rate. The objective is to investigate the role of insulin resistance/sensitivity in carcinogenesis by studying the relation between insulin resistance/sensitivity and IGF-1 levels in cancer patients. We postulate that hyperinsulinaemia which prevails during initial phases of insulin resistance (condition prior to overt diabetes) increases bioactivity of free IGF-1, which may contribute to process of carcinogenesis.

:) <o:p></o:p>
 

·
Banned
Joined
·
97 Posts
Discussion Starter · #20 ·
from the british medical journal + studies

Cancer and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1 )

Editorial / British Medical Journal BMJ 2000;321:847-848 7oct00

A potential mechanism linking the environment with cancer risk

Insulin-like growth factor-I acts as an important mediator between growth hormone and growth throughout fetal and childhood development. Its effects and those of the other insulin-like growth factors are modulated by at least six different binding proteins. The role of insulin-like growth factor-I in promoting cancer has been investigated for many years, but recently the quality and quantity of evidence has increased.1 In particular, a number of prospective studies using stored blood collected up to 14 years before the onset of disease have shown associations between insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer, premenopausal breast cancer, and colon cancer.2-4

The risk of cancer is higher among people with raised concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, and it is lower among those with high concentrations of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (the main binding protein). The associations are similar when people whose blood samples were taken soon before diagnosis are excluded from analyses, suggesting that the observed relations are not due to the release of the growth factor by preclinical cancers.2-4 The effects are sizeable and stronger than the effects seen in relation to most previously reported risk factors.1 Weaker evidence from case-control studies suggests that the ratio of insulin-like growth factor-I to insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 may also be related to the risk of childhood leukaemia and lung cancer. 5 6

The increasing direct epidemiological evidence that relates insulin-like growth factor-I to the risk of cancer is consistent with more circumstantial evidence. Acromegaly, in which high concentrations of growth hormone stimulate production of high concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer and breast cancer in some studies and less consistently with prostate, thyroid, and haematological malignancies.7 In many studies anthropometric markers of the activity of insulin-like growth factor-I, such as height and leg length, are associated with cancer incidence, particularly with the cancers for which risk increases with rising concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I.8 While adult height is not strongly associated with concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in cross sectional studies, it may be a marker for this growth factor during childhood growth,9 and this may be the period during which it acts to increase the risk of cancer occurring in later life.3 Additionally, animal studies have shown that high overall intake of energy in early postnatal life is associated with an increased cancer risk, and this association has recently been found in humans.10 In animals, calorie restriction reduces the risk of cancer primarily by reducing the circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I.11

Support for the link between cancer and this growth factor comes from an understanding of the potential mechanisms. Concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I could be a surrogate for the activity of sex steroid hormones, which in turn influence the risk of cancer. However, associations between insulin-like growth factor-I and cancers dependent on sex hormones are stronger than those between directly measured concentrations of sex hormones and these cancers. Insulin-like growth factor-I may increase cell turnover and the susceptibility of cells to malignant transformation both directly and by modulating the effects of sex steroids. The fact that the risk associated with increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I is greater in people whose DNA is more susceptible to damage induced by mutagens supports this suggestion.6 Alternatively, insulin-like growth factor-I might increase the risk of cancer through its anti-apoptotic activity.1 In this case it prevents the programmed death of cells that have been transformed thus interrupting an important process which retards the development of cancer. Experiments using animal and cell cultures have shown that the anti-apoptotic activity of insulin-like growth factor-I is counterbalanced by the activity of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, which may have a direct and independent stimulatory action on apoptosis.

Given the increasing evidence of the risk of cancer, caution should be exercised in the exogenous use of either insulin-like growth factor-I or substances that increase concentrations of it. Despite supposedly being restricted to use only in licensed applications, growth hormone is easily available as an anti-ageing treatment and is surprisingly widely used by athletes and body builders, who also use insulin-like growth factor-I. Those who use these products are unlikely to be aware of their potentially harmful effects.

The final accounting on the balance sheet of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, and chronic disease is uncertain. The increasing evidence of a risk of cancer may be counterbalanced by a protective effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Growth hormone deficiency is associated with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile and increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease.12 Low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I are also associated with cardiovascular morbidity in the elderly.13 Furthermore, the same studies that have shown a positive association between height and cancer risk suggest that greater height is associated with decreases in cardiovascular and all cause mortality.14

The predictive value of insulin-like growth factor-I may be useful in screening for cancer. For example, the ratio of insulin-like growth factor-I to prostate specific antigen may be a better predictor of the development of prostate cancer than the antigen alone.15 Growth hormone antagonists are being investigated as treatments for some cancers and chemotherapeutic agents are being developed to block the activity of insulin-like growth factor-I or to promote the activity of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3; these agents may offer additional ways of stimulating apoptosis in malignantly transformed cells. Lastly, better knowledge of the factors that influence overall concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I may help in devising strategies to prevent cancer at a population level.

Much recent attention has focused on the human genome project and its potential for unravelling the causes of cancer. The genes that have been identified as causing cancer so far account for only a small proportion of major cancers. The rapid and sizeable changes in the incidence of cancer that have been seen during times of economic development coupled with the findings from twin studies - which compare the concordance of cancer risk in identical and non-identical twins to determine the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors - both point to the importance of non-genomic factors.16 The new epidemiological findings about insulin-like growth factor-I provide one potential mechanism through which an array of previously identified environmental risk factors may act.

George Davey Smith, professor, clinical epidemiology.

David Gunnell, senior lecturer, epidemiology and public health.

Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2PR

Jeff Holly, professor, clinical science. Department of Surgery, University of Bristol

1. Holly JMP, Gunnell DJ, Davey Smith G. Growth hormone, IGF-I and cancer. Less intervention to avoid cancer? More intervention to prevent cancer?

J Endocrinol

1999; 162: 321-330
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10467223&link_type=MED
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10467223&link_type=MED[Medline]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10467223&link_type=MED

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10467223&link_type=MED.

2. Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Gann PH, Ma J, Wilkinson P, et al. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study.

Science

1998; 279: 563-566
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=sci&resid=279/5350/563
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=sci&resid=279/5350/563[Abstract/Full Text]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=sci&resid=279/5350/563

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=sci&resid=279/5350/563.

3. Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Michaud DS, Deroo B, et al. Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of breast cancer.

Lancet

1998; 351: 1393-1396
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9593409&link_type=MED
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9593409&link_type=MED[Medline]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9593409&link_type=MED

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9593409&link_type=MED.

4. Ma P, Pollak MN, Giovannucci E, Chan JM, Tao Y, Hennekens CH, et al. Prospective study of colorectal cancer risk in men and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3.

J Natl Cancer Inst

1999; 91: 620-625
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jnci&resid=91/7/620
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jnci&resid=91/7/620[Abstract/Full Text]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jnci&resid=91/7/620

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jnci&resid=91/7/620.

5. Petridou E, Dessypris N, Spanos E, Mantzoros C, Skalkidou A, Kalmanti M, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I and binding protein-3 in relation to childhood leukaemia.

Int J Cancer

1999; 80: 494-496
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9935146&link_type=MED
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9935146&link_type=MED[Medline]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9935146&link_type=MED

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9935146&link_type=MED.

6. Wu X, Yu H, Amos CI, Hong WK, Spitz MR. Joint effect of insulin-like growth factors and mutagen sensitivity in lung cancer risk.

J Natl Cancer Inst

2000; 92: 737-743
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jnci&resid=92/9/737
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jnci&resid=92/9/737[Abstract/Full Text]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jnci&resid=92/9/737

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jnci&resid=92/9/737.

7. Jenkins P. Cancer in acromegaly.

Trends Endocrinology Metab

1998; 9: 360-366.

8. Gunnell D. Height, insulin-like growth factors and cancer risk.

Growth Horm IGF Res

2000; 10(suppl A): 39-40S.

9. Juul A, Bang P, Hertel NT, Main K, Dalgaard P, Jorgensen K, et al. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults: relation to age, sex, stage of puberty, testicular size, and body mass index.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab

1994; 78: 744-752
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=8126152&link_type=MED
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=8126152&link_type=MED[Medline]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=8126152&link_type=MED

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=8126152&link_type=MED.

10. Frankel S, Gunnell DJ, Peters TJ, Maynard M, Davey Smith G. Childhood energy intake and adult mortality from cancer: the Boyd Orr cohort study.

BMJ

1998; 316: 499-504
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=bmj&resid=316/7130/499
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=bmj&resid=316/7130/499[Abstract/Full Text]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=bmj&resid=316/7130/499

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=bmj&resid=316/7130/499.

11. Dunn SE, Kari FW, French J, Leininger JR, Travlos G, Wilson R, et al. Dietary restriction reduces insulin-like growth factor I levels, which modulated apoptosis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression in p53-defieicnt mice.

Cancer Res

1997; 57: 4667-4672
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9354418&link_type=MED
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9354418&link_type=MED[Medline]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9354418&link_type=MED

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=9354418&link_type=MED.

12. Sacca L, Cittadine A, Fazio S. Growth hormone and the heart.

Endocr Rev

1994; 15: 555-573
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=edrv&resid=15/5/555
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=edrv&resid=15/5/555[Abstract]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=edrv&resid=15/5/555

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=edrv&resid=15/5/555.

13. Janssen JAMJL, Stolk RP, Pols HAP, Grobbe DE, Lamberts SWJ. Serum total IGF-I, free IGF-I and IGFBP-1 levels in an elderly population. Relation to cardiovascular risk factors and disease.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol

1998; 18: 277-282
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=atvbaha&resid=18/2/277
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=atvbaha&resid=18/2/277[Abstract/Full Text]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=atvbaha&resid=18/2/277

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=atvbaha&resid=18/2/277.

14. Davey Smith G, Hart C, Upton M, Hole D, Gillis C, Watt G, et al. Height and risk of death among men and women: aetiological implications of associations with cardiorespiratory and cancer mortality.

J Epidemiol Commun Health

2000; 54: 97-103
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jech&resid=54/2/97
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jech&resid=54/2/97[Abstract/Full Text]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jech&resid=54/2/97

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=jech&resid=54/2/97.

15. Djavan B, Bursa B, Seitz C, Soeregi G, Remzi M, Basharkhah A, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-I density and IGF/PSA ratio for prostate cancer detection.

Urology

1999; 54: 603-606
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10510914&link_type=MED
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10510914&link_type=MED[Medline]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10510914&link_type=MED

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10510914&link_type=MED. 16. Lichtenstein P, Holm NV, Verkasalo PK, Iliadou A, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M, et al. Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer -- analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland.

N Engl J Med

2000; 343: 78-85
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10891514&link_type=MED
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10891514&link_type=MED[Medline]
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10891514&link_type=MED

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/external_ref?access_num=10891514&link_type=MED.
 
1 - 20 of 23 Posts
This is an older thread, you may not receive a response, and could be reviving an old thread. Please consider creating a new thread.
Top